Lautenthal Hanover Prussia

The Harz Mountains in Central Germany
Heinrich and Ernst Nagel were the sons of Carl Nagel and Ernestine Heidenrich from Lautenthal, Prussia. Their mother died in 1822 and the father followed in 1824. Eldest brother Carl was nineteen when the family were left orphans. He had the responsiblility for his younger brother and sister, the youngest being Ernst aged 4.

In the Harz Mountains at this time many people were unemployed with work in the silver and lead mines restricted to one miner in each household. The orphaned children remained in Lautenthal. Among church records of confirmations, baptisms, marriages and deaths is the entry recording the birth of a son on 1 April 1837 to Heinrich Nagel and Caroline, the widow of Carl Heinrich Bohn.

Heinrich Nagel 1814 - 1866
Heinrich and Caroline immigrated to Australia in 1846 on the ship Heerjeebhoy Rustomjee Patel with their son Wilhelm Friedrich Christian Nagel, aged 9, and Caroline’s remaining children, Johann Heinrich Christian Bohn aged 13, Christiane Caroline Juliane Bohn aged 15, and Caroline Wilhelmine Bohn aged 20. Caroline's  two eldest girls emigrated to Australia three years later.

Heinrich and Caroline spent their lives in South Australia’s Lyndoch Valley. Their son Friedrich married Juliane Noske in 1856 at St Johns Lobethal and had a family of ten children.

"Henrich Nagel and Carl Herberger, appeared upon the information of Heinrich Geyer for an assault. The parties were German miners of Glen Osmond, and each party was represented by his own interpreter of the broken English one by-the-way was as difficult to understand as his clients German. The case was a trivial one of pulling by the hair and knocking down, to which Nagel pleaded guilty, and alleged  that under the provocation of having been called a lazy fellow. Herberger pleaded not guilty, and alleged that he had merely endeavoured to separate the combatants, but the contrary was made out by his own witness, and his Worship fined the defendants in 40's each."
Heinrich died at the age of 51 on 16th March 1866 from dysentery and his wife Caroline died in Adelaide on 12th November 1869 aged 73. Heinrich was buried in the cemetery of St Michael’s Church Hahndorf without a headstone; his grave is now under St Michael’s car park. Caroline was buried in a public grave at West Terrace Cemetery, she also has no headstone.

Ernst Nagel 1819 -1896

Augustina & Ernst Nagel
Heinrich Nagel’s youngest brother Christian Ernst Nagel married Caroline’s eldest daughter Caroline Augustina Bohn. In July of 1848 he applied to the Government of Hanover for assistance to emigrate to South Australia with his family. A note on the second son’s baptismal record says the family had left for Australia. Due to the population and difficulty finding work The Government of Hanover had subsidised immigration to Australia and the USA. An assistance scheme to pay their passage and provide them with a small sum of money was to be repaid when established in the new country. In records of the Clausthal-Zellerfeld Chief Mining Authority Ernst has a comment “the brother in Australia wants to pay all the costs immediately at arrival.” Ernst’s older brother Heinrich had emigrated to Australia in 1846 with Augustina’s mother. Ernst stated on his application to emigrate that “he had no money whatsoever and would like to follow his brother Heinrich.”

In October 1848 the emigrants gathered at Clausthal from where the men walked while the women and children were transported together with their luggage to the railway line at Vienenburg, a distance of twenty kilometres. The following day they travelled by train to Bremen and after signing promissory notes embarked at Bremerhaven ready for the voyage. British regulations meant a doctor had to be on board and six months supplies carried.

Ernst and Caroline emigrated to Australia on George Washington in 1849 with Caroline’s younger sister Johanne Henriette Augustine Bohn b1823 and their two sons, Ernest and Friedrich. They were among the first group of immigrants to be assisted by this scheme. They departed Germany on 25th October 1848.  After fourteen days at sea an outbreak of Cholera claimed their youngest son Friedrich, he died on 8th November 1848 aged 14 months along with twenty eight passengers. The George Washington arrived in Port Adelaide on 2nd March 1849.

The New Country
It is believed the Nagel family first settled at the Mount Barker Mine in South Australia as their third son Ernest August Peter, was born there in February 1850. This was also shown as their place of residence on his birth certificate. Another son Christian Heinrich Francis Martin Nagel was born in September 1852 at Grunthal.

Ernst Nagel's Signature
Ernest was naturalised on 22nd December 1852, his address given was Greenthal and his occupation was a miner, the certificate also stated that he had been a resident in South Australia for four years.

Two more children were born in Grunthal, Wilhelm Heinrich Carl Nagel in 1855 and a daughter Louisa Wilhelmina Friederike Nagel in 1858. During this time Ernst attempted a farmer’s life, as the Day Book of Winters Mill at Hahndorf SA records Ernst bringing wheat to the Mill.

Ernest & Augustina Nagel
Ernest and his family then moved to Callington where he returned to mining at the Wheal Ellen Mine. Two more daughters were born, Augusta Caroline Nagel in 1862 and Bertha in 1864. Ernest and his eldest son Ernest (known as Henry) were approached by Captain Hancock to work for him as he had been transferred to take over the management of the Moonta Mines. They accepted his offer and finally settled in East Moonta where Ernest took up as an Ore Dresser.

Ernest worked as an Ore Dresser at Moonta until his death on 8th August 1896 at the age of 76. According to his Obituary he did not take time off due to sickness in that 31 years, he only gave up work six weeks prior to his death from bronchitis. His wife Caroline Augustina died two months later on 2nd October 1896 aged 78. They are both buried at Moonta South Australia.

"MOONTA, August 8, much regret has been expressed locally at the death of Mr. Johannas. C. E. L. Nagel who was for many years a highly respected resident in this district. He arrived in Adelaide by the ship Washington in the year 1849 with his wife and one child, and settled first at Hahndorf, afterwards removing to Callington, where he worked on the mines for five years. When the Moonta Mines opened he took up his, residence in the district, where he passed the rest of his life as oredresser. He held that position for 31 years. He was a prominent member of the Lutheran Church, but at Moonta he made one of the congregation of the Church of England. His wife survives him and he also leaves, 4 sons, 3 daughters, 29 grand and 2 great grand children. He was highly respected by all who knew him, and, continued at his employment up to within about six weeks of his death."

Extracts From The Nagel Family of the Harz and Australia by Shirley Kalisch 1993 ISBN 0 646 14288 7 Lutheran Publishing House, Adelaide SA 5000